UPSC Essentials: Society & Social Justice | Urbanisation and associated issues — Part 1 | UPSC Current Affairs News
(In UPSC Essentials’ series ‘Society & Social Justice’, which we have started for social issues topics of UPSC CSE, our subject experts will give an overview of the theme from both, static and dynamic points of view. ‘Express Inputs’ and ‘points to ponder’ will widen your horizon on the issue. Our first topic was ‘Population’. For the month of August, we take up the topic of ‘Urbanisation and associated issues’. In part 1, Pranay Aggarwal talks about the definition, process, positive and negative impacts, and more. He also addresses a past UPSC question related to the topic.)
About the Expert: Pranay Aggarwal is an educator and mentor for aspirants preparing for UPSC Civil Services Examination. With more than 10 years of experience guiding civil service aspirants, he is acknowledged as an expert on civil service exam preparation especially on subjects like Social Issues and Sociology. He is the India representative on Research Committee on Education for UNESCO’s International Sociological Association and a member of Indian Sociological Society’s committee on social movements. He is also the Convenor of Indian Civil Services Association, a think tank of senior bureaucrats.
Relevance of the topic: With the increasing pace of urbanisation along with the baggage of problems seen in recent times this topic becomes essential for UPSC preparation. It is an important theme in GS I (Society), GS II, GS III, Prelims and Personality test. Aspirants will find it relevant for Essays as well.
Manas: Let’s begin with basics. How should we understand the term urbanisation?
Pranay Aggarwal: Urbanisation is the process of transformation that occurs as a society evolves from predominantly rural to predominantly urban areas. It involves the increase in the proportion of a country’s population residing in urban areas, leading to the expansion and growth of cities and towns. To better understand this concept, it is essential to grasp the various related terms.
Furthermore, urbanisation is not just about the physical expansion of cities but also encompasses social, economic, and cultural transformations. It involves the migration of individuals from rural to urban areas in pursuit of employment opportunities, improved living standards, access to better education and healthcare facilities, and a more cosmopolitan lifestyle.
The root word is ‘urban’. Urban refers to areas characterised by high population density, advanced infrastructure, and diverse, typically non-agricultural economic activities. These areas typically have a concentration of buildings, housing complexes, commercial establishments, and social amenities. Urban areas are distinct from rural areas, which are characterised by lower population density, agricultural activities, and limited infrastructure.
The Indian Census identifies two categories of ‘urban’ areas:
1. Statutory towns — those which have urban local bodies like municipal corporation, municipality or municipal committee.
2. Census towns — All those places satisfying the following 3 criteria:
a) Population of atleast 5000 persons.
b) Minimum population density of 400 persons per sq. km. and
c) 75 per cent of the male workforce is employed in the non-agricultural activities.
Apart from these aspirants must know few more key terms. Urban agglomerations encompass a broader area, including not only a city but also its surrounding suburbs and neighboring towns that share economic, social, and functional ties. Megacities are cities with exceptionally large populations, often exceeding ten million inhabitants. These cities face unique challenges due to their scale, such as traffic congestion, inadequate housing, and strained infrastructure. Over Urbanisation happens in rural areas due to expansion of urban activities and characteristics in rural areas which gradually replaces the rural traits. Closely connected to over urbanisation is sub- urbanisation. Let’s see if students/aspirants can tell us what it is?
Manas: What are certain important characteristics of the urban system that students should know?
Pranay Aggarwal: The urban system is characterised by several important features that distinguish it from rural
areas, as follows:
Population Density: Urban areas are characterised by high population density, with a large number of people residing in relatively small geographical areas. This density leads to the concentration of social, economic, and cultural activities, promoting interaction and exchange.
Diverse Economic Activities: Urban systems are centers of economic growth and diversification. They offer a wide range of employment opportunities across various sectors such as manufacturing, services, finance, technology, and creative industries. The presence of diverse economic activities attracts people seeking better job prospects.
Infrastructure and Services: Urban areas typically have better-developed infrastructure compared to rural areas. This includes transportation networks, communication systems, water supply, sanitation, electricity, healthcare facilities, educational institutions, and recreational amenities. These amenities are crucial in attracting and sustaining urban populations.
Social Heterogeneity: Urban areas are characterised by social diversity and cultural heterogeneity. They serve as melting pots of different ethnicities, languages, religions, and lifestyles. This diversity fosters social interaction, multiculturalism, and the exchange of ideas, leading to vibrant urban communities.
Urban Planning and Governance: Effective urban planning and governance are essential for the functioning and development of urban systems. Urban planning involves the systematic allocation of land for various purposes, ensuring the provision of infrastructure and public services, and addressing issues like housing, transportation, and environmental sustainability.
Manas: Understanding process of urbanisation is little complex. Can you briefly explain it for the aspirants?
Pranay Aggarwal: Regarding the process of urbanisation, aspirants must know that is a vast topic. They just need to be clear with the concepts. So, urbanisation is a dynamic and complex process that involves the shift of population and economic activities from rural to urban areas. It can be summarized in the following stages:
1. Migration: People migrate from rural areas to urban centers in search of employment opportunities and improved living conditions. This rural-urban migration is influenced by factors such as industrialisation, globalisation, agricultural changes, and demographic trends.
2. Urban Growth: As migration continues, urban areas experience population growth, resulting in the expansion of cities and towns. This growth can occur through natural increase (births exceeding deaths) and net migration (in-migration exceeding out-migration).
3. Infrastructure Development: Urbanisation necessitates the development of infrastructure and services to cater to the growing population. This includes the construction of roads, transportation systems, housing, schools, hospitals, and utilities like water supply and sanitation.
4. Economic Transformation: Urbanisation drives economic transformation by attracting investments, fostering entrepreneurship, and facilitating the growth of industries and services. Urban areas become hubs of economic activity, generating employment opportunities and driving economic development.
5. Social and Cultural Changes: Urbanisation brings about social and cultural changes as people from diverse backgrounds come together. This includes changes in lifestyles, social norms, family structures, and the adoption of new cultural practices and identities.
Here, I must point out that understanding the characteristics of the urban system and the process of urbanisation helps us comprehend the dynamics and challenges associated with urban growth. It enables policymakers, urban planners, and communities to develop strategies and policies that promote sustainable and inclusive urban development.
Manas: Historically, is it right to say that the process of Urbanisation was seen as an off shoot of the Industrial Revolution and modernisation? What has led to the massive growth of urbanisation in India?
Pranay Aggarwal: Indeed, it is accurate to assert that the process of urbanisation in the modern world can be traced back to the Industrial Revolution and the broader phenomenon of modernisation. The Industrial Revolution, which originated in Europe during the 18th century, brought about significant technological advancements, transforming societies from agrarian-based economies to industrialised ones. This shift resulted in the growth of factories, the rise of manufacturing industries, and the concentration of economic activities in urban areas.
The Industrial Revolution acted as a catalyst for urbanisation by creating a demand for labor in urban centers. People migrated from rural areas to cities in search of employment opportunities in factories and other industrial establishments. This movement from rural to urban areas fueled the rapid expansion of urban populations and the emergence of industrial cities.
In India, however, the process of urbanisation spans several centuries, even millennia, before the advent of industrialisation. The oldest known civilisation in the Indian subcontinent was primarily urban, with major cities like Harappa, Mohenjodaro and Lothal. During the medieval period, too, India was home to numerous cities, big and small.
Ralph Fitch, one of the first British merchants to visit India way back in the 1580s, remarked that “Agra and Fatehpur Sikri are two very great cities, either of them much greater than London”. So, urbanisation in India was not solely due to industrialisation that began during colonial rule. Even today, we have many ancient and medieval cities still in existence, from ancient pilgrimage centers like Kashi and Ayodhya to medieval-era hubs of trade and commerce, like Surat and Masulipattanam.
The British colonisation of India, which began in the 18th century, brought about significant changes in the economic and administrative structure of the country; which affected the urbanisation process in India. The British established industries, railways, and administrative centers, primarily in urban areas, to serve their colonial interests.
The introduction of railways played a pivotal role in promoting urbanization in India. Railways facilitated the movement of people, goods, and raw materials, connecting different parts of the country. This connectivity led to the growth of trade, commerce, and industries, which in turn attracted people to urban centers.
Post-independence, the process of urbanisation in India continued at an accelerated pace. Factors that contributed to the massive growth of urbanisation in India include:
1. Population Growth: India has experienced significant population growth over the years, leading to increased pressure on resources and a subsequent migration of people from rural to urban areas.
2. Industrialisation and Economic Development: India’s Pursuit of industrialisation and economic development has led to the growth of industries, services, and urban areas. Economic opportunities in urban centers have attracted people seeking better livelihoods and improved standards of living.
3. Infrastructure Development: The government’s emphasis on infrastructure development, such as the construction of roads, transportation networks, and housing, has contributed to urban growth. Improved infrastructure has made urban areas more accessible and conducive to economic activities.
4. Education and Healthcare: Urban areas in India offer better access to education, healthcare facilities, and other essential services, making them attractive destinations for people seeking improved social and human development opportunities.
5. Globalisation and Urban Centers: The integration of India into the global economy has led to the growth of urban centers as hubs for international trade, commerce, and services. Globalisation has stimulated urbanisation by attracting investments and creating employment opportunities.
Manas: As we see around, urbanisation has become a part of our lives immensely. What are the positive impacts of urbanisation?
Pranay Aggarwal: Urbanisation brings about several positive effects that contribute to societal, economic, and
cultural development. Here are some key positive effects of urbanization:
1. Economic Growth and Opportunities: Urban areas serve as engines of economic growth. According to the World Bank, more than 80 per cent of global GDP is generated in the cities. The concentration of industries, businesses, and services in urban centers leads to increased productivity, innovation, and entrepreneurial activities. Urbanisation provides diverse employment opportunities, attracts investment, and stimulates economic development, ultimately contributing to higher living standards and improved economic outcomes.
2. Improved Infrastructure and Services: Urban areas tend to have better-developed infrastructure and a wider range of services compared to rural areas. Urbanisation drives the expansion of transportation networks, including roads, railways, and public transportation systems, enabling efficient movement of people and goods. Access to quality healthcare, educational institutions, cultural amenities, and recreational facilities is often enhanced in urban areas.
3. Social and Cultural Exchange: Urbanisation fosters social interaction and cultural exchange due to the diversity of people from different backgrounds residing nearby. Urban centers become melting pots of diverse cultures, languages, traditions, and ideas. This cultural vibrancy promotes creativity, tolerance, and the exchange of knowledge, leading to social cohesion and a rich cultural tapestry.
4. Education and Skill Development: Urban areas offer better access to educational institutions, including schools, colleges, and universities. This facilitates higher levels of education and skill development among urban populations. Urbanisation provides opportunities for individuals to acquire knowledge, gain specialised skills, and pursue professional careers, ultimately contributing to human capital development and socio-economic mobility.
5. Technological Advancements: Urban areas often witness the adoption and development of advanced technologies. The concentration of research institutions, technology parks, and innovation hubs in urban centers fosters technological advancements and promotes innovation. Urbanisation facilitates the dissemination of new technologies, leading to improved efficiency in various sectors such as transportation, communication, energy, and healthcare.
6. Social and Political Empowerment: Urbanisation can contribute to increased social and political empowerment. Urban areas become centers for activism, civic engagement, and social movements. The density of the population, diverse social networks, and mass media urban centers provide platforms for collective action, advocacy, and the expression of diverse voices, leading to social and political change. While recognising these positive effects, it is important to ensure that urbanisation is managed effectively to address challenges such as urban poverty, inequality, environmental degradation, and infrastructure deficits. Sustainable urban planning, inclusive policies, and equitable resource allocation is essential for maximising the positive impacts of urbanisation and creating livable, resilient cities for all residents.
Manas: Now, let’s discuss some problems associated with urbanisation and the reasons behind them. (UPSC CSE 2013 question: Discuss the various social problems which originated out of the speedy process of urbanisation in India.)
Pranay Aggarwal: Urbanisation brings along several challenges that arise due to the rapid growth and transformation of urban areas. These problems can be attributed to various factors, including the following:
1. Overcrowding and Housing Shortage: Rapid urbanisation leads to population growth, resulting in overcrowding and increased pressure on housing. The demand for affordable housing often outstrips supply, leading to the proliferation of slums, informal settlements, and inadequate living conditions.
2. Strain on Infrastructure: Urbanisation puts a strain on infrastructure systems such as transportation, water supply, sanitation, and electricity. Urban areas often face challenges in providing adequate and efficient infrastructure to meet the needs of a growing population.
3. Traffic Congestion and Pollution: As urban areas expand, traffic congestion becomes a major issue, leading to increased commute times, air pollution, and environmental degradation. Inadequate public transportation systems and a rise in private vehicle ownership contribute to these problems.
4. Inequality and Social Exclusion: Urbanisation can exacerbate existing social inequalities and create new forms of exclusion. Economic disparities, limited access to resources and services, and marginalisation of vulnerable groups can occur in urban areas. This can lead to social unrest, crime, and social fragmentation.
5. Environmental Degradation: Urbanisation puts pressure on natural resources and ecosystems. Deforestation, loss of green spaces, pollution, and improper waste management is a common problems associated with urbanisation. These factors contribute to environmental degradation and have detrimental effects on public health and well-being.
6. Inadequate Service Provision: The rapid influx of people in urban areas often leads to challenges in providing essential services such as healthcare, education, and sanitation. Urban areas may face a shortage of facilities and skilled professionals, resulting in inadequate service provision and disparities in access.
7. Displacement and Social Disruption: Urbanisation can result in the displacement of communities and disruption of social networks. Development projects, gentrification, and urban renewal initiatives can lead to the involuntary relocation of residents, causing social and economic upheaval.
8. Governance and Urban Management: Urbanisation poses governance and management challenges. Effective urban planning, coordination among different government agencies, and the involvement of communities in decision-making processes become crucial for addressing the diverse needs of urban populations. These problems associated with urbanisation necessitate proactive and sustainable urban planning, investment in infrastructure, equitable resource allocation, and inclusive policies. It is essential to address the challenges while promoting the positive aspects of urbanisation to ensure the creation of livable, inclusive, and resilient cities.
POINT TO PONDER: Why India needs ‘good’ urbanisation?
Manish Sabharwal and Rajiv Mehrishi wrote in the opinion piece of The Indian Express : Covid reinforces that good urbanisation is our most powerful technology for poverty reduction. Here’s some of the key takeaways:
Nobel Laureate Paul Romer describes technology as a different recipe rather than more cooks in the kitchen. Using his framing, cities are a technology for poverty reduction; New York City’s GDP equals that of Russia with 6 per cent of the people and 0.00005 per cent of the land. Covid has catalysed a naive or hypocritical romanticism of villages that believes cities are undesirable technology because of their hostility to migrants, infection hotspot tendency, and diminished centrality to the future of work due to digitisation. We disagree: Covid is an opportunity to catalyse good urbanisation by empowering our cities with more power and funds.
The post-Covid debate of cities as “desirable or undesirable” technology mirrors a 1960s debate about food chronicled in the wonderful book The Wizard and the Prophet by Charles Mann. Norman Borlaug — the wizard — is a Nobel-winning scientist who believed science and technology will overcome challenges and he kickstarted the agricultural Green Revolution. William Vogt — the prophet — believed that prosperity would lead humans to ruin without cutting back and he kickstarted the environment movement. One says innovate; the other says retreat. But cutting back on urbanisation would hurt the three transitions — farm to non-farm, informal to formal, and school to work — that are raising per capita incomes. India’s problem is not land (if we had Singapore’s density all our people could fit into Kerala), labour or capital (we are the world’s largest receiver of diaspora remittances and FDI). Our challenge is the productivity upside of good urbanisation. And if 50 per cent of our population in rural areas generate only 18 per cent of the GDP, they are condemned to poverty.
Urbanisation gets a bad name in rich and poor countries because megacities — 10 million-plus populations — are unpleasant places to live for people who are not rich or powerful. Twenty-six of the world’s 33 megacities are in developing countries because their rural areas lack rule of law, infrastructure and productive commerce. Migrants that left our cities during the first lockdown last year are back because they were not running towards cities, but running away from sub-scale economic wastelands — estimates suggest that 2 lakh of our 6 lakh villages have less than 200 people. But there is no denying that even our non-megacities have inadequate planning, non-scalable infrastructure, unaffordable housing, and poor public transport.
Megacities are not cursed. Tokyo has a third of Japan’s population but planning and investments have ensured that essential workers like teachers, nurses, and policemen don’t commute two hours. The most insightful metric for city quality came from Italian physicist Cesare Marchetti who suggests that 30 minutes has been the most acceptable — or shall we say civilised — commute through history (even as the method changed from walking to horses to bicycles to trains to cars). The Marchetti constant is almost impossible in Bengaluru where taxi and auto speeds average 8 km/hour.
The golden rule in government is those with the gold rule; the annual spend of our central government is about Rs 34 lakh crore and of 28 state governments is about Rs 40 lakh crore. But the 15th Finance Commission estimates our 2.5 lakh plus local government bodies only spend Rs 3.7 lakh crore annually. This apartheid has many reasons.
First is power; local government is curtailed by state government departments in water, power, schools, healthcare, etc (property tax collection would be 100 per cent if municipal bodies supplied water).
The second is independence — only 13 per cent and 44 per cent of the budget of rural and urban bodies was raised themselves.
The third is structure — a Union ministry controlling finance and governance of the states would be unacceptable at the Centre but the Department of Local Self Government in the states has almost unlimited powers (suspension/removal of mayors and other elected representatives or supercession of elected local bodies is almost routine in most states).
Fourth, having separate central rural and urban ministries distorts policy.
Finally, the lack of power and resources sets off a vicious cycle of decline because ambitious and talented individuals aren’t attracted to city leadership.
India’s local government challenge reflects what historians call path dependence; unlike others, our democracy didn’t evolve bottom-up with local government rolling up into state governments that came together as a nation. India inherited a nationally centralised structure (a must for a colonial power) and princely states (with legitimacy, structures and resources) got strong powers in the constitution. Consequently, empowering local governments has been seen as a “favour” that involves “sacrifice”, and city leadership is either unelected with power (bureaucrats) or elected with limited power and unreasonable conditions (candidates are only eligible for one term in 30 years because of the six-category reservation-by-rotation policy for SC man, SC woman, ST man, ST woman, General man, General woman).
Good urbanisation is also crucial to delivering economic justice for women, children and Dalits. Poor quality urbanisation has meant men-only migration, leaving the women with all the hard labour of farm work, raising the children, and looking after in-laws, while having virtually no recourse to health services, or to even emotional support of the spouse. Village children going to abysmal-quality government schools without bilingual possibilities places them at a disadvantage in English-dominated entrance tests for professional courses and civil services. Though not great by any standards, the quality of both healthcare and education in cities remains better than villages by miles. Most painfully, Dalits in villages are often denied the dignity that urban anonymity provides.
Good urbanisation — getting power and funds to cities — needs chief ministers to sacrifice self-interest. Their reward will be undying duas of millions waiting for high-quality jobs and opportunities. India is lucky that Norman Borlaug prevailed over William Vogt in the food technology debate. As the post-Covid urbanisation debate gains momentum, we hope the wizards will again prevail over the prophets.
(This column first appeared in the print edition on September 20, 2021 under the title ‘City to recover’. Sabharwal is vice-chairman, Teamlease Services; and Mehrishi is a former civil servant.)
Nearly a century ago, no farmer in Bengaluru would give his daughter in marriage to a boy who didn’t have a lake in his village. Tanks and wells built by the common people were for the community and travellers. This transition from waterbodies being integral to the life and people, to becoming a singular flow in a tap in an individual household has meant many things. With a looming water crisis, it’s important to note how these ancient public spaces were lost, forgotten, and remembered by people once again.
Tanks and lakes that met the water needs of the locals had to make way for piped water infrastructure, making them the privilege of a few. Urbanisation did its bit to worsen ground water levels. While our cities have master plans, they don’t have competent water plans. “We’ve forgotten what’s below our feet. Aquifers and wells have been feeding us for years. But, today, sewage enters these waterbodies and they’re closed and converted into land. So, we need to find public spaces for recharging them. One such experiment was in Cubbon Park in Bengaluru last year. With India Cares Foundation and Friends of Lakes, an environmental group, and traditional well-diggers, we helped revive seven existing wells on the premises,” says rainwater-harvesting expert S Vishwanath. With the focus on planting, ponds were revived and rainwater trenches created. While this led to people’s participation, its criticism has been that it has excluded the lesser-privileged locals from entering the park.
However, this experiment in Cubbon Park, was initiated by a change in the two-centuries-old Jakkur Lake, Bengaluru, which flows downstream into Rachenahalli Lake. By constructing wetlands and managing sewage flow, Jakkur Lake has become a community space for livelihood, recreation, learning and ecology. “It’s rearranged the way we interact with the space. The grass that grows in the periphery feeds cows, fishermen cooperatives come here to fish, and vegetables and herbs feed local villagers,” says Vishwanath.
“By building basements, we have cut off our connect with our waterbodies and aquifers. Delhi’s Agrasen ki Baoli will always be dry because of the underground Delhi Metro construction. The water crisis in the country points to our dissociation with water and rain. Catchment areas in sensitive zones such as Kabini and Wayanad need to be protected,” says Vishwanath.
With the “One Million Wells” project for his city, Vishwanath, Advisor, Biome Environmental Trust, says, “These water bodies are becoming the new public spaces. It’s building new communities of joggers, birders, and ecologists. There are examples of wetland revival in Delhi and East Kolkata, stepwells are being revived in Jodhpur, and youngsters are stepping forward to clean up tanks and lakes in Salem and Mumbai’s beaches. Water is our natural heritage and we should, collectively as a community, find ways to revive it.”
(This story was first published on: 23-06-2019)
JUST FYI: Rapid urbanisation and poor land-use affected snail population, species diversity, shows study
Anjali Marar wrote in The Indian Express in 2022: Many native snails, which were once commonly spotted in rivers of Pune, have been replaced by invasive species as recorded from the samples collected.
Rapid urbanisation and poor land-use, especially near major rivers in Pune city during the recent decades, have directly contributed to the decline of the gastropods (shelled organisms), a new study has found.
Many native snails, which were once commonly spotted in rivers of Pune, have been replaced by invasive species as recorded from the samples collected from river banks of tributaries of Mula, Mutha, Indrayani and Pavana by Pune-based researchers.
The findings are more pertinent and comes at a time when the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) is soon launching the Mula-Mutha River Front Development project, which researchers and environmentalists univocally call a disaster waiting to happen with respect to biodiversity and river ecosystems in the city.
“Habitat modification undertaken in the name of (river) beautification and restoration without the consultation of scientific experts in restoring ecology can severely impact the native ecology of any aquatic ecosystem,” said Sameer Padhye, co-author of the study and researcher with Biologia Life Science LLP, Ahmednagar.
The new study, published in Journal of Urban Ecology, concluded that the sites with increased urbanisation reported a decrease in the gastropod species richness — a key indicator of a healthy environment for the snail population. Not more than two or three species were recorded in areas with high built-ups, the researchers found. Mula and Mutha rivers — that flow through the most developed areas of the cities — offered a not-so-healthy marine ecosystem for these shelled organisms, said Mihir Kulkarni, lead author and a Pune-based biologist. Whereas, better species richness was noted at Pavana and Indrayani river tributaries, he added.
In all, 13 gastropod species were recorded from seven sites of these four river tributaries. Notably, a non-invasive snail species named Physella acuta — whose presence was limited to Mula river some 25 years ago — has now spread and was found growing in the other three rivers too, highlighting the thriving non-native species and their dominance all linked to urbanisation. While numerous studies are done usually focusing on the biodiversity and species richness of larger animals and fishes, very little is known about the smaller and micro-sized organisms. The researchers argued that detailed flora and fauna identification and their species assessment was imminent in order to avoid species loss.
“If the riverbanks are modified without conducting a detailed biodiversity or ecological study of the natural inhabiting flora and fauna, such organisms will perish after the modification due to habitat destruction. Very little or no attention is given to the smaller organisms which are more diverse in proportion and abundant than larger animals,” Padhye said.
(This story was first published on: 16-02-2022)
In the upcoming parts on urbanisation we shall focus on questions such as:
— How has urbanisation effected family, caste, women, village life and other social institutions?
— What should we know about urban floods? What is the link between urban flooding, sustainability and development?
— What is the way forward for city management and urban governance?
— Often seen in academic papers is the term ‘Rurbanisation’. What is it and why is it being discussed?
and many more points to ponder…
Previous topics on Society and Social Justice:
NOTE — The content of Population and associated issues (Part 3) was widely covered in The 360° UPSC Debate: India’s Growing Population- Dividend or Burden? Please refer to the article.
Subscribe to The Indian Express UPSC Key and prepare for the Civil Services and other competitive examinations with cues on how to read and understand content from the most authoritative news source in India.
Note: Catch the UPSC Weekly Quiz every Saturday evening and brush up on your current affairs knowledge.)
Share your views, answers and suggestions in the comment box or at firstname.lastname@example.org. You can also post your doubts and questions on topics related to Social Issues and Justice.
If you want to register your marriage in thane visit : https://courtmarriageregistration.co.in/court-marriage-registration-in-thane